Some journals include additional sections, such as Objectives between Background and Methods and Limitations at the end of the abstract. Table 4 presents examples of the contents of accept-ably written methods sections, modified from actual publications.
Some authors publish papers the abstracts of which contain a lengthy background section. It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper. The usual sections defined in a structured abstract are the Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions; other headings with similar meanings may be used eg, Introduction in place of Background or Findings in place of Results.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed. For this, the abstract must have some general qualities. This is unfortunate because the reader is interested in the paper because of its findings, and not because of its background.
This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract.
Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper. Note that, in the interest of brevity, unnecessary content is avoided. Examples of acceptably written abstracts are presented in Table 6 ; one of these has been modified from an actual publication.
Only a dedicated reader will peruse the contents of the paper, and then, most often only the introduction and discussion sections. What is already known about the subject, related to the paper in question What is not known about the subject and hence what the study intended to examine or what the paper seeks to present In most cases, the background can be framed in just 2—3 sentences, with each sentence describing a different aspect of the information referred to above; sometimes, even a single sentence may suffice.
In most cases, however, a longer background section means that less space remains for the presentation of the results. The purpose of the background, as the word itself indicates, is to provide the reader with a background to the study, and hence to smoothly lead into a description of the methods employed in the investigation.
If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture.
For the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. There are some situations, perhaps, where this may be justified.
The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings. It should contain enough information to enable the reader to understand what was done, and how. The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Finally, most readers will acknowledge, with a chuckle, that when they leaf through the hard copy of a journal, they look at only the titles of the contained papers.
Table 2 Open in a separate window Methods The methods section is usually the second-longest section in the abstract. The results section should therefore be the longest part of the abstract and should contain as much detail about the findings as the journal word count permits.
Background This section should be the shortest part of the abstract and should very briefly outline the following information: Table 3 Open in a separate window Carelessly written methods sections lack information about important issues such as sample size, numbers of patients in different groups, doses of medications, and duration of the study.
In the rest of this paper, issues related to the contents of each section will be examined in turn. Thus, for the vast majority of readers, the paper does not exist beyond its abstract. Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript. This is because readers who peruse an abstract do so to learn about the findings of the study.
These are listed in Table 1. Table 3 lists important questions to which the methods section should provide brief answers. Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report,[ 1 ] and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials.
Table 4 Open in a separate window Results The results section is the most important part of the abstract and nothing should compromise its range and quality.Arial Albertus Extra Bold MyMaster II THE PUBLICATION PROCESS Slide 2 Conduct literature review Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Conduct literature review Start the paper Slide 13 Start the paper Conduct study/analyze data Organize/summarize results succinctly Get early, frequent feedback Get early.
A scientific paper should: •Present the facts in an unbiased manner •Be clear: concise and complete •Use facts to make statements •Be complete enough that other scientists can Microsoft PowerPoint - Senior Seminar - Lecture 3 - Scientific killarney10mile.com Author: n Sep 08, · Expert Reviewed.
How to Write a Scientific Paper. Five Parts: Formatting the Paper Writing the Sections Making the Figures and Tables Citing Your Sources Properly Sample Paper Community Q&A Even if you are not planning to publish a scientific paper, you may be asked to write in this format for a college course or 72%(56).
Oct 08, · How to Make a Scientific or Technical Presentation Scientific and technical presentations are a vital component to presenting scientific data to a variety of audiences.
Whether you are a professional in a medical field of study, an engineer, or a government official, you will have to make an oral presentation at some point in your 80%(25).
How to write a scientific paper. By Prof. Dr. Khadiga Gaafar Zoology Dept., Faculty of Science, Cairo University A scientific experiment is not complete until the results have been published and understood.
A scientific paper is a. HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience.
Research practices and approaches vary.Download