Glaciers leave behind moraines that contain a wealth of material—including organic matter, quartz, and potassium that may be dated—recording the periods in which a glacier advanced and retreated.
Global Change Research Program concluded that "[global] warming is unequivocal and primarily human-induced. In rapidly warming Alaska, however, as permafrost thaws into mud, road shoulders slump, highway cuts slide, and runways sink.
The UAH version of the record contained errors, and there is evidence of spurious cooling trends in the radiosonde record, particularly in the tropics. The Kyoto Protocol lists these together with hydrofluorocarbon HFCsperfluorocarbons PFCsand sulfur hexafluoride SF6 which are entirely artificial gases, as contributors to radiative forcing.
That represents 20 percent of human-made greenhouse gas emissions and a source that could be avoided relatively easily. The recovery time for this event took more than 30 years.
Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1. Note that most existing literature on storm surge and sea level rise impacts on transportation systems is based on a global sea level rise of less than one meter about 3 feet.
Like the warming "signal" that has gradually emerged from the "noise" of natural climate variability, the scientific evidence for a human influence on global climate has accumulated over the past several decades, from many hundreds of studies. Another way of viewing the problem is to consider the effects of human-induced climate change on the probability of future extreme weather events.
Current studies indicate that the increase in greenhouse gases, most notably CO2, is mostly responsible for the observed warming. Coal is the substrate, supplying roughly half of the electricity used in the U.
An earlier study by Dole et al. When sea level rise is coupled with intense storms, the resulting storm surges will be greater, extend farther inland, and cause more extensive damage.
A gradually warming climate will accelerate asphalt deterioration and cause buckling of pavements and rail lines. Hadley cells are the mechanism by which equatorial generated ozone in the tropics highest area of UV irradiance in the stratosphere is moved poleward. Soil moisture is likely to decline in many regions, and intense rainstorms are likely to become more frequent.
Arctic warming is also projected to allow the seasonal opening of the Northwest Passage to freight shipment. Transportation Research Part D: Variability in temperature, precipitation, and englacial and subglacial hydrology can strongly determine the evolution of a glacier in a particular season.
Aerosols produced are primarily black carbon. These records are obtained from living things and their remains like tree rings and corals and from physical quantities like the ratio between lighter and heavier isotopes of oxygen in ice coreswhich change in measurable ways as climate changes.
This is analogous to the rolling of a dice: The scientific consensus as of stated in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report is that it "is extremely likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the midth century". The report provides transportation professionals with an overview of the scientific consensus on current and future climate changes of particular relevance to U.
Environmental Program estimates that it requires 54 acres to sustain an average human being today—food, clothing and other resources extracted from the planet.
Eleven of the last 12 years are among the warmest years recorded since Scientists rely on such studies to attribute observed changes in climate to a particular cause or set of causes.
Besides being affected by climate changes, transportation systems also contribute to changes in the climate through emissions. A world glacier inventory has been compiled since the s, initially based mainly on aerial photographs and maps but now relying more on satellites.
Similarly, employing more efficient refrigerators, air conditioners and other appliances, such as those rated highly under the U. Scientific literature and opinion Main article: Typical high monthly variance can be seen, while longer-term averages highlight trends.
Such carbon capture and storage is critical to any serious effort to combat climate change. A larger supercontinent will therefore have more area in which climate is strongly seasonal than will several smaller continents or islands.
Whether by forgoing an automobile or employing a reusable grocery sack, cutting back on consumption results in fewer fossil fuels being burned to extract, produce and ship products around the globe.
Reliability and Capacity at Risk The impacts from sea level rise and storm surge, extreme weather events, higher temperatures and heat waves, precipitation changes, Arctic warming, and other climatic conditions are affecting the reliability and capacity of the U.Home» Arctic Climate Change» Level 2» Question Arctic Climate Change Strong rapid action to reduce emissions is required in order to alter the future path of human-induced warming.
it is possible that climate change will evolve differently than the gradually changing scenarios used in this assessment.
For example, storm. Attribution of recent climate change is the effort to scientifically ascertain mechanisms responsible for recent industrial processes, transportation fuels (generally fossil fuels), and agricultural Another way of viewing the problem is to consider the effects of human-induced climate change on the probability of future extreme weather.
Overview of Climate Change An Introduction to the Science of Climate Change The earth's climate is predicted to change over time, in part because human activities are altering the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.
Public Transportation and Climate Change Adaptation Tina Hodges Federal Transit Administration September 22, • Global warming is unequivocal and primarily human-induced. • Climate changes and impacts are occurring now and are climate change on state of good repair and safety; commits FTA to.
The scientific consensus on climate change is "that climate is changing and that these changes are in large part caused by human activities," and Responses to human-induced climate change include: climate change mitigation, climate change adaptation and climate engineering.
Politics, scientific discussion and public opinion. The National Climate Assessment summarizes the impacts of climate change on the United States, now and in the future. Our Changing Climate, Key Message 10) have not been incorporated into existing regional studies of coastal areas.
The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Transportation, Summary and Discussion Papers.Download